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Surgical Sperm Recovery:

Surgical sperm retrieval may be a treatment option for men In the first three conditions, which are produced by the testes

  • In cases of non-obstructive azoospermia (complete absence of sperm), very small amounts of sperm may be produced and can be collected directly from the testes
  • In men with obstructive azoospermia, there is a very high chance of recovering by this method (>90%).
  • In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, the chances of recovering is approximately 40%.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Testosterone (T)

Ancillary testing:

  • Postejaculate urinalysis
  • Transrectal ultrasound
  • Scrotal ultrasoundHormone Levels:
  • Sertoli cell-only syndrome.

Evaluation for Non-obstructive Azoospermia

1. History:

Cryptorchidism; Chemotherapy; Genetic abnormalities

2. Physical Examination:

Small, soft testes ( < 15 ml); Empty or flat epididymis

3. Semen Analysis:

Normal volume; Fructose present; No spermatozoa

4. Hormone Levels:

Elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone Borderline to low testosterone