What are ovarian cysts?

The ovaries happen to be part of the female reproductive system. They happen to be located in the lower abdomen on both sides of one’s uterus. Women have two ovaries that do produce eggs as well as the hormones estrogen as well as progesterone.

Sometimes, a fluid-filled sac known a cyst will also develop on one of the ovaries. Many women will also develop at least one cyst during their lifetime. In most cases, cysts are painless and also cause no symptoms.

Types of ovarian cysts

There are also various types of ovarian cysts, like dermoid cysts and endometrioma cysts. However, functional cysts happen to the most common type. The two types of functional cysts do include follicle and corpus luteum cysts.

Follicle cyst

During a menstrual cycle of a woman, an egg does indeed grow in a sac known a follicle. This sac is also located inside one’s ovaries. In most cases, this follicle or sac does also break open and also releases an egg. But if the follicle does not break open, the fluid inside the follicle can also form a cyst on one’s ovary.

Corpus luteum cysts

Follicle sacs typically do dissolve after releasing an egg. But if the sac does not get dissolved and the opening of the follicle seals, additional fluid can indeed also develop inside the sac and this accumulation of fluid does cause a corpus luteum cyst.

Other types of ovarian cysts include:

  • dermoid cysts: sac-like growths on the ovaries that do contain hair, fat, and other tissue
  • cystadenomas: noncancerous growths that can also rather develop on the outer surface of the ovaries
  • endometriomas: tissues that do normally grow inside one’s uterus can also develop outside the uterus and then get attached to the ovaries, thus causing a cyst.
  • Some women tend to develop a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome. This condition means the ovaries do contain a large number of small cysts. It can cause the ovaries to enlarge. If left untreated, polycystic ovaries can also cause infertility.

Symptoms of an ovarian cyst

Often times, ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms. However, symptoms can also appear as the cyst grows. Symptoms may include:

• abdominal bloating or swelling
• painful bowel movements
• pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle
• painful intercourse
• pain in the lower back or thighs
• breast tenderness
• nausea and vomiting

Severe symptoms of an ovarian cyst that do require immediate medical attention include:

• severe or sharp pelvic pain
• fever
• faintness or dizziness
• rapid breathing

These symptoms can also indicate a ruptured cyst or an ovarian torsion. Both complications can have serious consequences if not treated early.

Ovarian cyst complications

Most ovarian cysts are benign and naturally do go away on their own without treatment. These cysts cause little if any, symptoms. But in rare cases, one’s doctor may also detect a cancerous cystic ovarian mass during a routine examination.

Ovarian torsion is also another rare complication of ovarian cysts. This is when a large cyst causes an ovary to twist or move from its original position. Blood supply to the ovary is also cut off, and if not treated, it can cause damage or death to the ovarian tissue. Although uncommon, ovarian torsion does account for nearly 3 percent of emergency gynecologic surgeries.

Ruptured cysts, which are also rare, can rather cause intense pain and internal bleeding. This complication does also increase the risk of an infection and can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Diagnosing an ovarian cyst

One’s doctor can rather detect an ovarian cyst treatment in Hyderabad during a routine pelvic examination. They may also notice swelling on one of one’s ovaries and order an ultrasound test to confirm the presence of a cyst. An ultrasound test (ultrasonically) happens to be an imaging test that does make use of high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of one’s internal organs. Ultrasound tests to help determine the size, location, shape, and composition (solid or fluid-filled) of a cyst.

Imaging tools that are used to diagnose ovarian cysts include:

  • CT scan: a body imaging device used to create cross-sectional images of internal organs
  • MRI: a test that uses magnetic fields to produce in-depth images of internal organs
  • Ultrasound device: an imaging device used to visualize the ovary

Because the majority of cysts disappear after a few weeks or months, one’s doctor may not immediately recommend a treatment plan. Instead, they may also repeat the ultrasound test in a few weeks or months to check one’s condition.

If no changes occur in one’s condition or if the cyst does increase in size, one has to request additional tests to determine other causes of one’s symptoms.

These include:

  • pregnancy test in order to make sure one is not pregnant
  • hormone level test for checking out for hormone-related issues, such as too much estrogen or progesterone
  • CA-125 blood test to screen for ovarian cancer

Ovarian CystsTreatment for an ovarian cyst

One’s doctor may also recommend treatment to shrink or remove the cyst if it does not go away on its own or if it grows larger.

Birth control pills

If one has recurrent ovarian cysts, one’s doctor can prescribe oral contraceptives to stop ovulation and also prevent the development of new cysts. Oral contraceptives can also reduce one’s risk of ovarian cancer. The risk of ovarian cancer is higher in postmenopausal women.

Laparoscopy

If one cyst is small and results from an imaging test to rule out cancer, one’s doctor can indeed perform a laparoscopy treatment in Hyderabad to surgically remove the cyst. The procedure does involve one’s doctor making a tiny incision near one’s navel and then inserting a small instrument into one’s abdomen to remove the cyst.

Laparotomy

If one has a large cyst, one’s doctor can surgically remove the cyst through a large incision in one’s abdomen. They will conduct an immediate biopsy, and if they do determine that the cyst is cancerous, they may perform a hysterectomy to remove one’s ovaries as well as the uterus.

Ovarian cyst prevention

Ovarian cysts cannot be prevented. However, routine gynecologic examinations can also detect ovarian cysts early. Benign ovarian cysts do not become cancerous. However, symptoms of ovarian cancer can actually mimic symptoms of an ovarian cyst. Thus, it’s important to visit one’s doctor and receive a correct diagnosis. Alert one’s doctor to symptoms that may indicate a problem, such as:

• changes in one’s menstrual cycle
• ongoing pelvic pain
• loss of appetite
• unexplained weight loss
• abdominal fullness

What’s the long-term outlook?

The outlook for premenopausal women with ovarian cysts is good. Most cysts do disappear within a few months. However, recurrent ovarian cysts can also occur in premenopausal women and women with hormone imbalances.

If left untreated, some cysts can also decrease fertility. This is common with endometriomas and polycystic ovary syndrome. To improve fertility, one’s doctor can remove or shrink the cyst.

Functional cysts, cystadenomas, and dermoid cysts do not affect fertility.

Although some doctors take a “wait and see” approach with ovarian cysts, one’s doctor may recommend surgery to remove and examine any cyst or growth that does develop on the ovaries after menopause. This is because the risk of developing a cancerous cyst or ovarian cancer does increase after menopause. However, ovarian cysts do not increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Some doctors will remove a cyst if it is larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

What are the implications of ovarian cysts on one’s pregnancy?

How do they affect someone who is pregnant and someone who is trying to get pregnant?

Some ovarian cysts are indeed associated with decreased fertility while others are not. Endometriomas and cysts from polycystic ovarian syndrome may also decrease a woman’s ability to get pregnant. However, functional cysts, dermoid cysts, and cystadenomas are not associated with difficulty in getting pregnant unless they are large.

If one’s physician discovers an ovarian cyst while one is pregnant, the treatment may also depend on the type or size of the cyst. Most cysts are benign and do not require surgical intervention. However, one may need surgery if the cyst is suspicious for cancer or if the cyst ruptures or twists (known as torsion), or is too large.