Surgical Sperm Recovery:
Surgical sperm retrieval may be a treatment option for men In the first three conditions, which are produced by the testes
- In cases of non-obstructive azoospermia (complete absence of sperm), very small amounts of sperm may be produced and can be collected directly from the testes
- In men with obstructive azoospermia, there is a very high chance of recovering by this method (>90%).
- In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, the chances of recovering is approximately 40%.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Testosterone (T)
- Postejaculate urinalysis
- Transrectal ultrasound
- Scrotal ultrasoundHormone Levels:
- Sertoli cell-only syndrome.
Evaluation for Non-obstructive Azoospermia
Cryptorchidism; Chemotherapy; Genetic abnormalities
2. Physical Examination:
Small, soft testes ( < 15 ml); Empty or flat epididymis
3. Semen Analysis:
Normal volume; Fructose present; No spermatozoa
4. Hormone Levels:
Elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone Borderline to low testosterone